Many of [Archimedes’] works are addressed to Dositheus, of whom very little is known. We do know one thing, which, yet again, is based on his name alone. It turns out that practically everyone in Alexandria at that time named Dositheus was Jewish. (The name, in fact, is simply the Greek version of Matityahu or Matthew.) This is very curious: the correspondence between Archimedes and Dositheus is the only one known from antiquity between a Greek and a Jew. It is perhaps telling that the arena for such cross-cultural contact was science. In mathematics, after all, religion and nation do not matter. This, at least, has not changed.

Reviel Netz & William Noel: The Archimedes Codex